How to make Chapati – Roti – Indian Flatbread

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Chapati or Roti is an unleavened flatbread that is made almost every day in most Indian households. It is a popular staple food that is served for Breakfast, Lunch, or Dinner, and doesn’t take too long to make!

Who doesn’t love a hot buttery roti sprinkled with sugar or jam for breakfast? Mom used to give us these for school tiffin. Yummy!

Or what about a chappati with delicious egg bhurji or mustard chicken for lunch or dinner? Yummy again!

This traditional Indian flatbread is made without any leavening agents so easy to make and requires just a few ingredients. Although there are many types of rotis in India, a chapati which is a type of roti can also be called a roti. To learn how to make your own chapati using multigrain flour or wheat flour, continue reading our recipe below.

What ingredients do you need to make chapati?

You can make chappatis as they are traditionally made with just whole wheat flour (which is called ‘atta‘ in India).

But in our quest for a healthier roti; for this recipe, we have used both the multigrain flour that contains a blend of wheat, soy, oats, maize, ragi (finger millet), chana dal (split chickpea or bengal gram dal) and barley along with a portion of some all-purpose flour aka maida as well. The steps to make to multigrain chapati/roti or to make normal Indian roti/chapati are the same.

So the roti ingredients we’ve used are a mix of a multigrain flour along with an all-purpose flour aka maida, oil, salt, water, and butter.

Choose any multigrain flour that you want. Just remember that some flours such as pearl millet and finger millet result in tougher or harder rotis.

If you’re going on the Daniel fast, chapatis can be eaten with your food because they’re unleavened! Just remember to make them with oil only like we’ve done, no cream, no butter.

How to make Chapati or Indian Flatbread?

To make these unleavened Indian flatbreads called chapatis or rotis what you first need is ‘atta‘. Atta is basically whole wheat flour that isn’t refined. Some rotis are also made with maida or refined all-purpose flour.

A mix of multigrain flour and all-purpose flour in a vessel.
Multigrain and All-purpose flour

Take a large bowl or thali (large flat pan or dish). Heap your atta and salt in it. Leave a handful of flour aside for later. Make a little hollow that looks like a ditch at the top of the flour and add the oil.

Oil in a well on top of flour.
Add oil to the flour

Mix the oil into the atta and knead it into a soft smooth dough by adding a little water at a time. Also, the amount of water you add depends on the flour and the weather conditions where you live. So do not add all the water at once as it will get sticky. Knead the flour for about 2 to 3 mins. This helps to make it softer. Once it forms a ball and all the flour is gathered together, cover it with a moist cloth or with a cloche and allow it to rest for 10 to 15 minutes.

A note here, if you want softer multigrain chapatis or rotis, replace each tablespoon of oil with about 2 tablespoons of yogurt or milk cream. (Stick to oil if you’re on the Daniel fast.)

Flour that has been kneaded into a dough.
Knead into a dough

After 15 minutes, make equal parts of the dough and shape into small balls.

Small dough balls, a rolling pin and a handful of dough on a black surface.
Make small dough balls

Taking the flour you had set aside earlier, dust a little bit of flour on the rolling surface and also the rolling pin. Roll out the dough balls into a thin circle.

Dough that has been rolled into a circular flatbread on a black platform with 2 dough balls at the end.
Roll the dough into a thin circle

Heat a tava (pan) and when hot, grease it with oil or butter, and place the chapati on it. A tava or tawa is an Indian frying pan that is made of cast iron, carbon steel, or aluminium similar to a griddle. If you do not have a tawa, you can use a regular frying pan or an anodised frying pan.

Chapati or roti roasting on a hot tava.
Place the roti on a hot tava

Add a bit of butter on the roti and cook till you see some small air pockets or blisters forming and it turns brown. Then flip sides and cook for about 30 secs on each side, till it looks properly cooked. If you want rich delicious rotis, you can add butter to the chappati now. If you’d prefer to have a leaner-trimmer, don’t add anything. We cook rotis both with and without oil or butter. Don’t use butter or oil on the Daniel fast!

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If we want the roti to puff completely, we sometimes cook it directly on the open flame. But that’s a job better left to regulars. So please stick with the frying pan or tawa.

Butter melting on a chapati on a hot tawa.
Add butter on the chapati
Chapati cooking on a tawa till it blisters.
Cook the chapati till it blisters
Chapati cooking on the other side on a hot tawa or frying pan.
Flip the chapati and cook the other side

Once your multi-grain roti is ready, you can either serve it immediately or store in a steel tiffin can to keep it warm. It goes perfectly with almost any dish, from mustard chicken to masoor dal to moong dal or anda bhurji or buttery oyster mushrooms or even simple batata bhaji.

Multi-grain chappatis ready to be served in a wicker basket on top of a blue and white checquered towel.
Chappati ready to be served
A dollop of butter on top of Indian roti breads.
Add a dollop of butter to the Indian roti bread
Indian Chapati breads in a wicker basket with some butter melting on top.
Indian Chapati breads with delicious melting butter
A dollop of butter on top of Indian roti breads.

How To Make Chapati – Indian Roti Flatbread

Chapati or Roti is an unleavened flatbread that is made daily in most Indian households. Easy to make, it's the perfect accompaniment to almost every meal.
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Prep Time 10 minutes
Cook Time 20 minutes
Resting time 10 minutes
Total Time 40 minutes
Course Breakfast, Dinner, Lunch
Cuisine Indian
Servings 20 Chappatis
Calories 86 kcal
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  • In a large bowl, mix the flour and salt.
  • Add the oil and knead into a dough.
  • Add water a little at a time to the dough, and lnead into a large ball. Only use as much water as the dough needs. (This depends on the flour you use and also on the weather conditions.)
  • Cover with a cloth and set the dough aside for 10 mins.
  • After 10 minutes, make small balls and roll the dough out into thin circles about 5 to 6 inch in diameter.
  • Place the chapatis on a hot tava with a little butter and cook till it blisters.
  • Flip sides for 30 secs each, and continue doing this till cooked.
  • Cover with a dollop of butter and serve the chapatis hot with your meals.

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  • You can replace the oil with twice the amount of yogurt (dahi) or milk cream for softer chapatis (except on the Daniel fast).
  • Rotis can be made with plain water and flour, but they’ll turn out a bit tougher than otherwise. 
  • Don’t worry if the roti does not puff completely, it will still taste good.
  • If you want something more indulgent, try these deep-fried flatbreads called puris.
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Stuff You Might Want to Use

Large Wide-bottomed Pan (Thala)
Wooden Rolling Pin
Dough Mixer Stand Mixer

Nutrition (Per Serving)

Calories: 86kcal | Carbohydrates: 15g | Protein: 2g | Fat: 2g | Saturated Fat: 1g | Polyunsaturated Fat: 1g | Monounsaturated Fat: 1g | Trans Fat: 1g | Sodium: 117mg | Potassium: 48mg | Fiber: 1g | Sugar: 1g | Vitamin A: 1IU | Calcium: 5mg | Iron: 1mg

Disclaimer: Nutrition Information per serving is estimated by a third party software based on the ingredients used, and is for informational purposes only. It will vary from product to product, based on methods of preparation, origin and freshness of ingredients. Please consult the package labels of the ingredients you use, or chat with your dietician for specific details.

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What’s Perfect About This Chapati Recipe?

  • Chapatis require just a handful of ingredients and are very easy to make. That’s why we eat them almost everyday!
  • It can be eaten for breakfast, lunch, and dinner or even as a snack.
  • Goes well with vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes.
  • For a quick snack or breakfast, heat a roti and lather it with either butter, peanut butter, chutney, or jam. Then roll it into a cylindrical shape and eat.

Cooking Tips and Tricks For Making Rotis/Chapatis

  • You can use just one kind of flour if you wish i.e. whole wheat or multigrain or all-purpose. All-purpose is optional in this recipe.
  • If you want to make regular Indian chapatis or rotis, use only chapati atta which is whole wheat flour, and follow this same recipe.
  • We use multi-grain flours to make it healthier.
  • Chapatis can be eaten on the Daniel fast since they’re unleavend. They’re a really good accompaniment for many Daniel feast sides and fasting snacks.
  • If you want softer rotis, replace the oil with twice the amount of yoghurt or milk cream. (Stick to oil on the Daniel fast.
  • You can cook it with ghee (Indian clarified butter) if you have this available. It gives the chappati a delicious earthy flavour.
  • Leftover rotis can be stored in an airtight container or ziplock bag. They will last for a few days in the refrigerator or for 3 to 4 months in the freezer. All you need to do to is reheat the roti/chapati in a frying pan or tawa before eating. You can reheat it with or without oil or butter.
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Questions about Chapati or Indian Flatbread

What If The Chapati Doesn’t Puff Completely?

If your chapati does not puff, don’t worry; it is still cooked. If you really want it to cook, increase the heat on the stove and cook them.

What Is Chapati Made Of?

Traditionally, chapatis aka Indian rotis are made using whole wheat flour, salt, water, and ghee/oil. Sometimes we add dahi (yogurt) or malai (cream) for softening.

How Can I Make Chapati Softer?

If you want softer chapatis, replace every tablespoon of oil with 2 tablespoons of yogurt or milk cream. If you’re eating this on the Daniel fast, skip the cream and use a small quantity of olive oil or any other good oil. It still tastes great!

Are Chapatis Gluten-Free?

No, chapatis are not gluten-free as they are made of whole wheat flour. But you can replace the wheat flour with any other gluten-free flour to make them gluten-free.

What Are The Different Types Of Rotis In India?

There are many types of rotis in India that are cooked using different methods – leavened, unleavened, fried, baked, deep-fried, and steamed. Some of them include naans, parathas, rotis, makai rotis, bajri rotis, kuchlas, idlis, appams, ghavnis, chitaps, rotla, bhakri, puris, bathura, khakra, koki, dosa, rava dosa, neer dosa, masala dosa, phulka, thepla, papad, pitha, kori roti, rumali roti, and many more.

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6 thoughts on “How to make Chapati – Roti – Indian Flatbread”

    • Are you using a Multi-grain flour? It depends on the grain content of flour; for example, if your roti has a higher content of Bajra (pearl millet), it gets tougher. Multi-grain chappatis are better eaten hot as soon as they are made because that’s when they’re the softest.

      Also, the traditional Indian rotis are made simply with ‘atta’ which is plain wheat four. These rotis are the softest. Is that what you were looking for instead of the multi-grain rotis? Soft rotis can also be made by using cream as I’ve mentioned in the tips.


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